- Emphasis on negative effects of labelling gives criminals a victim status. Realists see this is ignoring the real victims of crime
- Ignores that individuals may actively choose deviance
- Why do people commit crimes prior to labels?
- It implies no labels = no deviance. The people who commit crimes but are not labelled on deviant? People are unaware they are deviant until labelled?
- It fails to examine links between labelling and capitalism, so focuses on middle range officials such as police who apply labels rather than the capitalist class that make the rules.